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도시활력 증진을 위한 사회적경제조직 활용방안 연구
A Study on Policy Directions of Locally based Social Economic Organization for Enhancing the Vitality of Local Communities

  • 과제명

    도시활력 증진을 위한 사회적경제 조직 활용방안 연구

  • 주관연구기관

    국토연구원
    Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements

  • 연구책임자

    임상연

  • 참여연구자

    박세훈   이윤주   임지영   정우성   이민정  

  • 보고서유형

    최종보고서

  • 발행국가

    대한민국

  • 언어

    한국어

  • 발행년월

    2015-12

  • 과제시작년도

    2015

  • 주관부처

    국토교통부

  • 사업 관리 기관

    국토연구원
    Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements

  • 등록번호

    TRKO201600000885

  • 과제고유번호

    1105010735

  • 키워드

    Social economic organization,Locally based activity,Community vitality

  • DB 구축일자

    2016-05-14

  • 초록 


    Social-economy is considered as an alternative to the decline in employment, social polarization and the decline in local communi...

    Social-economy is considered as an alternative to the decline in employment, social polarization and the decline in local communities. Korea’s social-economy has started as job creation project since 2003 where the central government has lead a top-down and quantitative expansion.
    It has been constantly suggested that this brought many problems such as weakening the autonomy of social economic organizations, lack of expertise, and weak connection to local communities.
    Recently, the spreading awareness of social value in local communities has not only been realized by foreign nations but also by Korea. Awareness that the source for social economy is rooted in local communities is also spreading.
    This research aims to address the question of how social economic organizations can connect organically to local communities, how that can lead to appropriate locally based activities and finally how it can support the resolution of local community issues.
    It is the aim of this research is to understand the current condition of locally based social economic organizations. To understand the characteristics of locally based activities through surveys and case studies. In addition policy recommendation will be made so that locally based social economic organizations can grow synergistically.
    ‘Locally based social economic organization’ is defined as local community human and material resources being mobilized. It also is a business organization that pursues a combined profit with the aim for local communities’ social goals. The research will focus on the increase of urban revitalization which is related to the local industries, community businesses, and social cooperative.
    The analysis according to business and local condition is conducted through the current condition of the three social economic organizations and building their spatial distribution. Analysis and understanding of the locally based activities is done through surveys and domestic and international case analysis of the usage of local resources, activities of local societies and locally contributed processes. Analysis is not only limited to domestic case studies and includes studies to understand case analysis of American and Japanese policies for socio-economic organization activation. These can establish a basis for policy recommendation for domestic locally based social economic organization’s role.
    Current condition and spatial distribution of social economic organization
    Currently the condition of the types of businesses within social economic organization consists of four business types that make up 70% of all businesses.
    These are: manufacturing (28%), service (17%), tourism (14%), social welfare (12%). Manufacturing dominates social businesses and community businesses.
    Education and social welfare dominates social cooperatives. Within the Seoul metropolitan area, the highest represented businesses consist of 36% (957 individual businesses) which are public health, education, logistics, construction and social welfare. Businesses in other metropolitan areas make up 21% (552 individual businesses) , other provinces consist of 43% (1,126 businesses), no specific business type dominates. According current condition of regional distribution, the city with the highest number of local economic organizations are: Jeju (43), Jeonju (43), Suwon (42), Cheongju (40). Over 30% of organizations exist within the Seoul metropolitan area.
    Analysis and Case Study of the social economic organizations locally based activities
    The research of the current conditions of locally based activities was conducted through a valid sample of 8% (220) which is divided into organization type and regional type from a total sample of 2,638 which includes the entire country.
    A through case study was made in cities with the highest number of social economic organizations, which are Jeonju-si, Jeju-si, and Wonju-si and Busan’s representative businesses which has created communities, and propelled its city revitalization.
    As a result, first considering the aspect of the usage of local resources, the three organizations made good usage of hiring locally, usage of capital resources for organizational operations. There are many instances of regional member’s capital establishing village businesses and social cooperatives. In the case of Jeju Island, outstanding natural scenery and agrarian culture has been a good source of business.
    Secondly, regarding the aspect of local social activities in the Seoul metropolitan area, there is a low correlation between core businesses and local society revitalization. Regarding business types, social welfare (healthcare and childcare), construction, village creation also shows low correlation. However in actuality research shows that the best approach for regional healthcare and welfare blind spots is social economic organizational model based on the Wonju-si medical welfare social cooperative services provided for the most impoverished social group.
    Third, local community contribution aspect varies in type of participation and cause based on social-economic organization types. Especially we found out on the ground that it is hard for village businesses to participate in local community contribution work due to low profit. Likewise, we found out that securing stability and profit is an urgent issue for social economic organization in order to strengthen their community based activities and grow together with the community. Also, it is necessary to broaden the concept of social economic organization support, so that the government establishes proactive policies such as building social economic organization network, consulting and marketing support for management and operation, and further oversight. Nevertheless, all interviewees of social economic organization empathized that social economy is not a panacea for every problem. Therefore it is necessary to find proper activity that suits the organization type and size and select projects within the frame of communities that are active economically.
    The aim of this research is to find ways to promote ‘locally based social economic organization’ that allow social economic organization connect organically and grow with the community and share the outcome with community. Current policies for social economic organization vary with each department’s purpose and activity type and contents. There is lack of establishing proper concept for community and community based activity focused on economy. Also, various types of social economic organizations like social businesses, village business, and social cooperatives have no classification system to figure out each local community status and activities. Also, support for locally based social economic organization has no clear role allocation between central government, local government, and local community, also, the way of support and contents do not reflect the characteristics of the community and its organization. In the case of locally based social economic organizations, there is awareness that there
    is a high correlation between improving community living condition and vitality. However, the results show low satisfaction in the actual business field. Therefore, we need to pay constant attention and provide further support to this matter.
    To promote aforementioned locally based social economic organization and to supplement the current policies shortcoming, there are few policy alternatives below.
    First, establishing an assessment system to evaluate social economic organization’s community based characteristics, in order to integrate and manage from project proposal and evaluation index to monitoring stage and a whole body.
    Second, establishing local community vitalization model based on social economic organization, therefore, support plan for networking between similar business, business plan stratification, and organization broadening.
    Third, placing local community and social economic organization projects that performed separately by different central government division in macro policy frame of community vitalization aspect. This will allow the strengthening of connections in the activity of local community related organization and broaden joint projects.
    Fourth, establishing a growth stage support plan to promote stable social economic organization growth. This research is meaningful in that it covers issues in the aspects of local community characteristics and society and draws forth policy issues to compensate for existing social economic organization’s limit.
    Also, the outcome of this research such as defining locally based social economic organization, and analyzing spatially its national status and distribution can be used for future locally based social economic organization support plan study as a base data. In future studies, it is necessary to make comprehensive comparison and examination of various social economic organizations’ type and body in community based aspect.


    6. 결론 및 정책제안
    1) 도시활력 증진을 위한 사회적경제조직 활용방안
    ❏ 지역사회 활성화를 위해 사회적경제조직이 담당해야 할 중요 역할 제안
    ○ 지역맞춤형 서비스 제공자 역할, 지역사업 추진주체 역할, 지역공동체...

    6. 결론 및 정책제안
    1) 도시활력 증진을 위한 사회적경제조직 활용방안
    ❏ 지역사회 활성화를 위해 사회적경제조직이 담당해야 할 중요 역할 제안
    ○ 지역맞춤형 서비스 제공자 역할, 지역사업 추진주체 역할, 지역공동체 및 네트워크 구축 역할, 사회적경제조직 모니터링 주체로서의 역할, 마을사업 확산주체로서의 역할 등을 통한 활용방안을 제시함
    2) 정책제안
    ❏ 사회적경제조직과 지역사업 관련 조직과의 연계활동 강화 및 공동사업 추진 확대
    ○ 지역사회 활성화, 도시재생, 마을만들기 등을 목표로 하는 사회적경제조직의 지원정책을 마련해야 함
    ○ 해당 사업들이 정부주도의 단기적인 지원사업이 되지 않고 자생력을 갖추고 지속적으로 될 수 있도록, 지역기반 사회적경제조직이 사업의 거점 역할을 담당함
    ○ 마을만들기지원센터, 도시재생지원센터, 사회적경제지원센터 등이 공동의 지역사업 추진 기반을 마련하여 마을공동체 및 지역사회 사회적경제 육성에 참여하여야 함
    ○ 공동으로 사업에 참여한 조직 및 단체에 대해서는 인센티브를 제공하는 등 구체적인 지원방안을 마련해야 함
    ❏ 사회적경제조직의 지역기반성 점검시스템 시스템 마련
    ○ 사회적경제조직을 대상으로 지역공동체 참여 인원, 참여방식, 활동내용, 회원여부 등 지역공동체 구성원들의 참여에 대한 구체적인 현황을 파악하여 사회적경제 조직 지원정책, 지역개발/도시재생 관련 공모사업 제안시 평가지표로 활용함
    ○ 오픈 플랫폼 형식의 데이터 센서스 또는 사회적기업 및 영향투자 기업 등을 중심으로 한 시스템 구축 등이 이루어져야 함
    ❏ 사회적경제조직을 중심으로 한 지역활성화 모델 발굴․구축
    ○ 사회적경제조직의 업종별, 지역여건별로 바람직한 사회적경제조직 설립을 위한 유형별 모델 구축, 컨설팅 강화, 우수사례 확산이 이루어져야 함
    ○ 개별 사회적경제조직들은 대부분 영세하고 사업범위가 적기 때문에 단일 조직들을 통한 지역활성화 모델구축은 어려움이 있으나, 유사업종간 네트워크, 업계 단계화, 조직 광역화를 통한 지역활성화 사례의 발굴과 적용은 매우 중요함
    ❏ 사회적경제조직의 성장단계별 지원방안 마련
    ○ 지역기반 사회경제적조직의 지속적인 성장을 위하여 성장단계별로 차별적인 지원정책이 마련되어야 함
    ○ 사전준비단계-조직설립단계-조직성장단계 등 일련의 과정에 걸친 맞춤형 지원 정책이 추진되어야 함


  • 목차(Contents) 

    1. 표지 ... 1
    2. 발간사 ... 4
    3. 주요 내용 및 정책제안 ... 6
    4. 요약 ... 7
    5. 목차 ... 20
    6. 표목차 ... 22
    7. 그림목차 ... 24
    8. 제 1 장 연구의 개요 및 목적 ... 26
    9. 1. 연구의 배경 및 필요성 ... 28...
    1. 표지 ... 1
    2. 발간사 ... 4
    3. 주요 내용 및 정책제안 ... 6
    4. 요약 ... 7
    5. 목차 ... 20
    6. 표목차 ... 22
    7. 그림목차 ... 24
    8. 제 1 장 연구의 개요 및 목적 ... 26
    9. 1. 연구의 배경 및 필요성 ... 28
    10. 2. 연구의 목적 ... 29
    11. 3. 연구의 범위와 방법 ... 30
    12. 4. 선행연구와의 차별성 ... 32
    13. 제 2 장 사회적경제조직의 개념 및 관련 이론 ... 36
    14. 1. 개념의 정립 ... 38
    15. 2. 지역사회와 사회적경제조직의 활동 ... 44
    16. 3. 지역기반 사회적경제조직과 도시활력 ... 47
    17. 4. 분석틀의 구성 ... 48
    18. 제 3 장 사회적경제조직의 현황과 공간분포 ... 50
    19. 1. 사회적경제조직의 제도적 현황 ... 52
    20. 2. 사회적경제조직의 지역분포 ... 61
    21. 3. 사회적경제조직의 업종별 현황 ... 64
    22. 제 4 장 사회적경제조직의 지역기반 활동 분석 ... 72
    23. 1. 사회적경제조직의 지역기반 활동 설문조사 ... 74
    24. 2. 지역기반 사회적경제조직 사례분석 ... 89
    25. 3. 분석결과 및 시사점 ... 118
    26. 제 5 장 해외 사회적경제조직의 도시활력 증진사례 ... 124
    27. 1. 사례조사 개요 ... 126
    28. 2. 미국의 지역기반 사회적경제조직 ... 127
    29. 3. 일본의 지역기반 사회적경제조직 ... 139
    30. 4. 해외사례의 요약 및 시사점 ... 154
    31. 제 6 장 결론 및 향후 과제 ... 160
    32. 1. 결론 및 정책제안 ... 162
    33. 2. 연구의 한계와 향후 과제 ... 171
    34. 참고문헌 ... 172
    35. SUMMARY ... 180
    36. 부록 ... 186
    37. 부록 1. 사회적경제조직의 지역별 분포 ... 186
    38. 부록 2. 설문조사지 ... 189
    39. 끝페이지 ... 197
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