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정부정책의 여성고용 영향과 분야별 개선과제
Impact of government policies on women’s employment and policy suggestions for improvement in different fields

  • 과제명

    정부정책의 여성고용 영향과 분야별 개선과제(Ⅰ)

  • 주관연구기관

    한국여성정책연구원

  • 연구책임자

    김종숙

  • 참여연구자

    권소영   마경희   윤자영  

  • 보고서유형

    최종보고서

  • 발행국가

    대한민국

  • 언어

    한국어

  • 발행년월

    2015-12

  • 과제시작년도

    2015

  • 주관부처

    여성가족부

  • 사업 관리 기관

    한국여성정책연구원

  • 등록번호

    TRKO201600001084

  • 과제고유번호

    1105010575

  • DB 구축일자

    2016-04-23

  • 초록 


    Improvement in women’s employment rate has ripple effects in various social areas such as childbirth, education and income securi...

    Improvement in women’s employment rate has ripple effects in various social areas such as childbirth, education and income security after retirement. It has been quite a while since the active implementation of policies for increasing women’s employment rate, and as policies become more concrete, they require efforts for further specification of their orientations and goals. In addition, comprehensive research is needed to improve structural problems in different fields, to develop various socioeconomic conditions related to women’s employment, and to implement relevant policies in more coordinated ways.
    The study attempts to improve policies by analyzing and evaluating the relationship between relevant policies and women’s employment according to women’s life cycle stages. The focus was placed on the analysis of the impact of child care policy regarding infants and preschool children on women’s employment. An analysis was made on why women leave the labor market when their children reach school age through education support activities and field research at schools. Consideration was given on the issue of wage, a key working condition for women’s return to the labor market after career interruption. To solve the problem of low wage in the women’s labor market and to deal with the gender wage gap, the issue of gender wage gap under the minimum wage system was examined thoroughly.
    To set the direction of the study, analysis of previous studies and reanalysis of related source data were made. A survey on the actual conditions of educational practices and women’s employment was carried out to tackle the lack of relevant previous studies and data. It was also attempted to reflect diverse opinions on the study through joint organization of expert advisory meetings, forums and conferences, and to share and disperse the results of the study.
    The results of the analysis of various policies, programs and environment that enable women to continue to work without career interruption according to their life cycle show varied influences of different programs on women’s employment according to their unique purposes.
    The results of the analysis of the impact of infant and preschool child care policies — which have recently been focused on child care support under the overall direction of reinforcement of services and reduction of cash grants — on women’s employment indicate that support for child care expenses has a positive influence on women’s employment and is thus helping to accomplish policy goals. On the other hand, the increase in cash grants including child care allowance appears to undermine women’s labor supply by raising unearned income.
    As it is seen through the changes in employment effect of child care expenses over several years that the outcome of women’s employment does not immediately respond to policy input but is generated after several years of gap, as a result of accumulated effects of a policy, we need to consider the prevention effect against women’s career interruption and the reemployment effect in a longer term.
    The alleviation of child care burden should be made in a way that diminishes gender role division. As seen from the result of provision of child care allowance, policies that have the effects of promoting the stereotype that the primary responsibility for child care lies with women and traditional gender role division should be avoided. In this regard, expansion of child care services forms the basis of not only increasing women’s participation in economic activities but also resolving traditional gender role division in child care.
    The results of the analysis of the education support policy for elementary school children and its impact on women’s employment showed that support for school education had a negative impact on women’s employment. There were opinions that mothers’ jobs had a negative influence on children and that it gets even more difficult to maintain work-family balance after children enter elementary school. Employed mothers who actively took part in children’s education support programs were likely to quit or want to quit their jobs. Their perception that the parental role was important to children’s relationships with friends, as well as their feeling that it is more difficult to maintain work-family balance when their children enter elementary school, positively affected their possibility of career interruption. Moving and change of address related to entrance to elementary school, which were used as proxy variables indicating their enthusiasm for children’s education, had a positive influence on the possibility of career interruption.
    Until recently, decision making in schools considering working parents has been quite limited. Education support activities of children in lower grades at elementary schools still tend to use women’s labor. In particular, education support activities in schools with high income effect, that mainly target mothers without jobs and with spouses earning sufficient levels of income, may reproduce the gender role division that leads to recognition of women’s employment as supplementary.
    Social expectation on the mothers’ role in the outcomes of children’s education have a negative impact on women’s employment by imposing the role of schools on parents as well as gender role division. An innovation of school education is needed so that the functions and roles of schools may be performed more sufficiently.
    Numerous education activities taking place in schools should be carried out on the premise of the employment of parents. Concerning such issues as school starting hours and discretionary holidays, it is necessary to conduct opinion polls and reflect the results. In addition, schools should make active efforts to build cooperation networks in the local communities to deal with the problems of the blind spot of child care. The difficulties of work-family balance that get aggravated in the elementary school age indicate the necessity of expansion of child care policies that have been focused on infants and preschool children until the present. The discussion on how to fill in the gaps in child care after school hours should be extended beyond lower grades in elementary schools.
    It is clearly seen that, among common problems of child care in the preschool age and lower-grade elementary school age, one of the key problems is that of long working hours. One of the most fundamental problems that undermine women’s employment is how work-centered Korean society is.
    Finally, the results of the analysis of the minimum wage policy and its impact on women’s employment showed that the problem of women’s low wages needs to be considered as a central issue in the improvement of the overall labor market structure. As seen in the discussion on the improvement of the labor market structure, the problems of women, non-regular workers and small businesses are main factors that aggravate the dual labor market. The lack of wage premium from better skills or longer service years in business types or job types with a high percentage of low wage workers leads to widening wage gaps, and female workers are concentrated in these dual labor markets.
    Women in the low wage sector tend to be middle-aged or elderly and low-educated. Women who return to work after career interruption make up the majority in the low wage labor group. Their low wage provides the cause of quitting jobs once again after returning to the labor market. The effort to diminish the low wage sector is highly important to increasing the women’s employment rate and activating a female workforce whose careers have been discontinued.
    The fact that the average wage of married workers is rising as compared to that of unmarried workers and the relative increase in the average wage of workers in their 30s indicate the increasing ratio of workers with long service years. These changes have appeared since 2013 and can possibly continue in the women’s labor market. Thus, the policy for prevention of women’s career interruption is a key policy measure for alleviation of the wage gap. In this regard, policies for improvement in discrimination in workplaces and work-family balance as well as child care support policies should be further strengthened to diminish career interruption.
    Minimum wage sets the lower limit of wage, and it can help reduce the wage gap by affecting the wage level of low-wage female workers. Therefore, it is important to consider the policy goal of alleviating the gender gap in the process of determining minimum wage.
    The ratio of women located in the blind spot of the minimum wage system still remains high, limiting the effect of the system on the labor market; thus, it is necessary to reinforce administrative power in relation to the implementation of minimum wage.
    As previous studies on the causes of the gender wage gap have shown,its alleviation in the high-wage sector is required to solve the overall gender wage gap. Therefore, an increase in the number of high-wage female workers is the most effective means for solving the problem. The increase in minimum wage has relatively limited effect on the solution of the gender wage gap, although the effect is positive. In this regard, a number of different policy measures should be developed in addition to the minimum wage system.
    Based on the above results, the following policy suggestions were made.
    1) Promotion of friendliness of child care support policy to women’s employment
    □ Reduction of cash support and increase in service support
    - Establishment of policy direction in which expansion of cash support is avoided, and service support is enhanced to promote women’s participation in the labor market. Introduction of essential payment conditions other than age or economic levels.
    2) Enhancement of gender equality in child care
    □ Expansion of fathers’ participation in child care
    - Negative perception of child care for infants and preschool children in child care facilities is a mechanism that focuses on the responsibility of child care on women. It is necessary to strengthen measures for the expansion of child care participation by men so that both parents can share responsibilities in child care.
    - Facilitation of men’s child care leave, expansion of company incentives for more active utilization of programs including work-hour reduction during the period of rearing young children and compulsory disclosure (linkage to the employment pattern disclosure system)
    3) Reinforcement of the public aspects of child care
    □ Development of a mid- to long-term plan for reinforcement of the public aspects of child care and establishment of a governance system
    - Alleviation of the asymmetry of information through the government’s supply of information and enhancement of the authentication function as well as reduction in the burden of expenses
    - Development of and compliance with the mid- to long-term plan including adjustment of the ratios of national/public and private expenses as well as stipulation of agreement among stakeholders
    4) Improvement in the quality of child care
    □ Improvement in the working conditions of child care teachers
    - Development of a plan for improvement in working conditions for social service workers in general, including introduction of a salary class system reflecting educational and career backgrounds, etc.
    □ Improvement in the evaluation and accreditation system
    - Compulsory implementation of evaluation and accreditation system
    - Expansion of participation by teachers and parents in the evaluation and accreditation process
    - Linkage to financial support for child care institutions based on results of the evaluation
    5) Promotion of friendliness of education support activities to working mothers
    □ Promotion of friendliness of the policy for participation of parents to employment
    - Focus of parent participation activities at schools on working parents and limitation of activities during weekdays
    - Limitation of parent participation in unnecessary support activities and normalization of education activities at schools
    □ Promotion of friendliness of school schedules to employment
    - Setting of school start/dismissal hours considering the work hours of employees (from around 8:30 to 18:30 in general) if the rigidity in the labor market cannot be improved in the short term
    - As short-term vacations result in the absence of child care, they should be held based on prior opinion polls and solutions for the absence of child care should be sought
    □ Reinforcement of detailed notification function on students’ education activities and outcomes as well as promotion of fairness
    - Revision of relevant guidelines so that announcement of schools’ plans on education activities can be made regularly and systematically
    - Prior provision of evaluation guidelines to avoid the influence of mothers’ participation on the education outcomes of students as well as reinforcement of notification
    6) Alleviation of gender wage gap
    □ Monitoring the gender wage gap
    - Implementation of tangible measures to alleviate the ongoing gender wage gap. Specification of ‘implementation of measures to solve gender wage gap’ in relevant laws
    □ Reinforcement of gender impact evaluation from the wage system
    - Gender impact evaluation from the minimum wage system, salary peak system, etc.
    □ Crackdown on wages lower than the minimum wage
    - Reinforcement of administrative power to reduce the number of workers who receive wages lower than the minimum wage
    - Wider dissemination of employment rules and standard employment contract
    7) Establishment of the governance system for alleviation of the wage gap
    □ Establishment and operation of a Korean-style EEOC within the National Human Rights Commission of Korea
    - Establishment and operation of a committee for correcting discriminatory measures related to wage
    - Reinforcement of the organization structure to implement measures against wage discrimination based on gender and employment patterns
    8) Improvement in the minimum wage system
    - Specification of ‘alleviation of the wage gaps based on gender and employment patterns’ as a factor to be considered in determining the minimum wage
    - Analysis of the gender gap by the Research Committee under the Minimum Wage Council and active utilization at the time of deliberation on the minimum wage


    3. 주요 연구 결과
    가. 영유아 보육정책의 여성고용 영향
    ○ 2005년부터 2013년까지 자녀양육지원의 보편화가 여성고용에 미친 효과를 보육료와 양육수당 지원을 중심으로 분석한 결과, 첫째, 보육료는 맞벌이 가구의 여성...

    3. 주요 연구 결과
    가. 영유아 보육정책의 여성고용 영향
    ○ 2005년부터 2013년까지 자녀양육지원의 보편화가 여성고용에 미친 효과를 보육료와 양육수당 지원을 중심으로 분석한 결과, 첫째, 보육료는 맞벌이 가구의 여성이, 양육수당은 남편 홑벌이 가구 여성이 수급할 확률이 높았다.
    ○ 2005년-2013년까지 보육료 지원의 보편화는 전체적으로 여성의 취업에 긍정적 영향을 미쳤음을 확인할 수 있었다. 이 기간 동안 보육료를 지원 받은 여성은 보육료를 지원 받지 않은 여성에 비해 취업 확률이 8.5%p 더 높고,긍정적 효과는 2009년 이후부터 나타나기 시작하여 2012년까지 지속되고 있다. 보육료 지원의 취업 효과는 특히 3-5세 자녀를 둔 여성, 자녀수가 1명인 여성, 하위 소득 계층의 여성에게 크게 나타나고 있었다.
    ○ 양육수당은 보육료 지원과는 정반대의 효과를 나타내면서 여성 취업에 부정적 영향을 미치고 있다. 2010~2013년 동안 양육수당을 수급한 여성의 취업 확률은 비수급 여성보다 15.5%p 낮았다. 양육수당이 전면 보편화되고 수급자가 증가한 2013년도에 양육수당 수급자의 취업 확률은 비수급자에 비해 약 30%p 낮았다. 0-2세의 어린 자녀를 둔 여성, 소득하위 계층 여성의 취업 확률을 낮추는 효과가 있었다. 보육료와 양육수당 지원을 동시에 모형에 투입하여 분석해 본 결과 보육료 수급 여성의 취업 확률은 양육수당수급 여성의 취업 확률보다 24.1% 높았다.
    나. 초등기 자녀교육지원정책과 여성고용 영향
    ○ 자녀가 영유아기를 지나 초등학교 시기에도 기혼여성의 자녀 양육 및 교육에 대한 책임과 역할은 노동시장참여를 저해하며 자녀가 초등학교 저학년 시기까지 여성고용률이 낮은 것은 이를 반증한다. 그 원인은 학교교육정책과 학교현장이 노동시장 현실과 부조화한 데서 찾을 수 있다.
    ○ 그 근거로 본 연구결과는 첫째, 학부모로서의 자녀의 교육활동 지원 활동에 대한 요구, 참여, 참여 주체는 지원활동의 종류에 따라, 모의 취업 상태에 따라 다르게 나타나 비취업모는 취업모보다 학교지원활동에 참여해달라는 요구를 받는 경우가 많고 거의 모든 활동에서 취업모보다 비취업모의 참여도가 높다.
    ○ 학교 및 가정 내에서 양육 및 교육 활동의 주 담당자는 엄마이며 동거 혹은 비동거 할머니는 아빠보다도 큰 역할을 맡고 있어 성별 양육부담의 차이는 여전히 매우 크다.
    ○ 학부모의 역할이 자녀의 교육 성과, 인성, 교육 관계에 미치는 영향이나 엄마의 역할에 대한 기대에 대한 조사 결과, 엄마의 일이 자녀에게 부정적인 영향을 미칠 것이라는 인식이 더 많았다. 정부 정책이 맞벌이 가구를 고려하지 않는다는 데는 높은 수준의 동의를 나타냈다.
    ○ 취업모의 현재 일자리와 비취업모의 마지막 일자리의 특성을 비교해본 결과,비취업모가 가진 마지막 일자리의 근로시간량, 출퇴근 시간, 소득 수준 등은 취업모의 현재 일자리의 그것보다 일가정 양립에 더 어려울 수 있는 성격을 나타냈다.
    ○ 초등학생 방과후 자녀를 주되게 돌보는 사람(기관)은 엄마와 학원이다. 초등 돌봄교실이나 지역아동센터를 이용하는 가구는 10가구 중에 1~2가구이며 초등돌봄교실에 대해서는 인력의 전문성과 운영에 대한 만족도가 상대적으로 낮았다.
    ○ 단기방학제도는 정부가 맞벌이 가구를 고려하지 않는 대표적인 정책 사례로 단기방학제도에 대해 과반 이상이 불만을 표시했으며, 취업모의 불만은 비취업모 보다 높았다.
    ○ 초등학교 입학 이전과 이후를 비교해 볼 때 일과 가정을 병행하는 어려움이 가중되었다는 응답자는 81.9%에 달했다.
    다. 최저임금 정책과 여성고용 영향
    ○ 최저임금제도는 비정규직 비중이 높고 성별 업종 및 직종분리가 심각한 여성노동시장에 직접적인 영향을 미칠 수 있다. 여성 저임금 노동시장의 문제는 지난 2010년 이후 사실상 큰 개선이 이루어지지 않았다. 저임금업종에 여성이 집중된 성별 업종분리는 2010년 이후 크게 개선되지 않아서 성별 임금격차의 해소가 더딘 것으로 보인다.
    ○ 여성내부에서의 분위별 임금 수준 격차도 매우 커서 1분위의 시간당 임금은 10분위의 15.6%에 그친다. 분위별로 직종이나 업종의 분포도 상당히 차이가 커서 우리나라 여성들은 여전히 특정 직종 및 업종을 중심으로 노동시장이 분리되어 있음을 보여주고 있다.
    ○ 최저임금제도를 통하여 성별 격차를 얼마나 완화시킬 수 있는지를 탐색한 결과, 최저임금은 성별 격차를 완화하는데 긍정적이다. 얼마나 긍정적인가는 분석방법에 따라 매우 다르게 나타나고 있지만 저임금 근로자가 많은 여성노동시장에 미치는 영향은 남성보다 확연히 크게 나타나고 있다. 회귀분석결과 최저임금인상 시 통계적으로 유의한 정(+)의 임금수준 개선효과가 있으며, 남녀 특성을 매칭하여 통제한 후 최저임금의 인상은 성별 임금비를 유의하게 개선하는 것으로 나타나고 있다. 반사실적 분포를 이용한 분석결과도 최저임금은 4분위 이하의 저임금 분위에서 성별 임금격차를 완화하고 있음을 확인할 수 있다.


  • 목차(Contents) 

    1. 표지 ... 1
    2. 발간사 ... 4
    3. 연구요약 ... 6
    4. 목차 ... 16
    5. 표목차 ... 19
    6. 그림목차 ... 24
    7. Ⅰ. 서론 ... 26
    8. 1. 연구의 필요성과 목적 ... 28
    9. 2. 주요 연구내용과 방법 ... 31
    10. Ⅱ. 영유아...
    1. 표지 ... 1
    2. 발간사 ... 4
    3. 연구요약 ... 6
    4. 목차 ... 16
    5. 표목차 ... 19
    6. 그림목차 ... 24
    7. Ⅰ. 서론 ... 26
    8. 1. 연구의 필요성과 목적 ... 28
    9. 2. 주요 연구내용과 방법 ... 31
    10. Ⅱ. 영유아 보육정책의 여성고용 영향 ... 34
    11. 1. 연구개요 ... 36
    12. 가. 연구의 필요성과 목적 ... 36
    13. 나. 주요 연구내용 및 선행연구 ... 37
    14. 다. 연구방법 ... 38
    15. 2. 영유아 보육정책 예산 및 지원 아동 추이 ... 47
    16. 가. 보육정책 예산의 증가 ... 47
    17. 나. 보육료 지원 대상의 확대 ... 49
    18. 다. 보육료・아동양육수당 지원 아동 추이 ... 51
    19. 3. 보육료・양육수당 수급과 여성취업의 일반적 경향 ... 54
    20. 가. 보육료・양육수당 수급 영향 요인의 변화 ... 54
    21. 나. 보육료・양육수당 수급과 취업의 결합 상태 변화 ... 61
    22. 4. 보육료 지원의 여성취업 효과 ... 66
    23. 가. 2005-2013년 전체 효과: 이항 패널로짓분석 ... 66
    24. 나. 보육료 수급의 연도별 여성 취업 효과 변화: 성향점수매칭 ... 69
    25. 5. 가정양육수당 수급의 여성취업 효과 ... 75
    26. 가. 2010년-2013년 전체 효과: 이항 패널로짓 분석 ... 75
    27. 나. 가정양육수당 수급의 연도별 여성 취업 효과 변화 ... 77
    28. 6. 소결 ... 80
    29. Ⅲ. 초등기 자녀교육지원활동의 여성고용 영향 ... 84
    30. 1. 연구개요 ... 86
    31. 가. 연구의 필요성과 목적 ... 86
    32. 나. 주요 연구내용 및 선행연구 ... 87
    33. 다. 연구방법 ... 89
    34. 2. 초등학교 자녀 교육지원 활동 ... 93
    35. 가. 학교교육 지원 활동 ... 93
    36. 나. 가정 내 양육 및 교육지원 활동 ... 102
    37. 다. 교육지원활동과 엄마 역할에 대한 인식 ... 109
    38. 3. 여성고용 영향 ... 111
    39. 가. 취업모와 비취업모의 일자리 특성 ... 111
    40. 나. 취업 여부와 자녀교육지원활동 결정 요인 분석 ... 118
    41. 다. 취업모의 자녀교육지원활동과 경력단절 가능성 ... 122
    42. 라. 비취업모의 자녀교육지원활동과 구직 의향 ... 125
    43. 4. 방과후 돌봄 실태 ... 131
    44. 5. 학교 정책의 여성고용친화성 ... 138
    45. 6. 소결 ... 149
    46. Ⅳ. 최저임금 정책의 여성고용 영향 ... 156
    47. 1. 연구개요 ... 158
    48. 가. 연구의 필요성과 목적 ... 158
    49. 나. 주요 연구내용 및 선행연구 ... 159
    50. 다. 연구방법 ... 160
    51. 2. 여성근로자의 임금분포와 변화 ... 161
    52. 가. 여성근로자의 평균임금 현황 ... 161
    53. 나. 임금 분위별 특성 ... 167
    54. 3. 최저임금과 성별 임금격차 ... 180
    55. 가. 최저임금과 여성임금 ... 180
    56. 나. 최저임금과 성별 임금격차 ... 188
    57. 4. 최저임금의 성별 임금격차 완화 효과 ... 191
    58. 가. 회귀분석과 PSM 방식을 이용한 성별격차 분석 ... 191
    59. 나. 반사실적 임금 분포를 이용한 성별격차 분석 ... 201
    60. 5. 소결 ... 215
    61. Ⅴ. 결론 및 정책과제 ... 218
    62. 1. 연구 결과와 시사점 ... 220
    63. 가. 영유아 보육정책의 여성고용 영향 ... 220
    64. 나. 초등기 자녀교육지원정책과 여성고용 영향 ... 222
    65. 다. 최저임금 정책의 여성고용 영향 ... 224
    66. 2. 정책방안 ... 227
    67. 가. 영유아보육정책 ... 227
    68. 나. 자녀교육지원정책 ... 228
    69. 다. 임금 정책 ... 230
    70. 참고문헌 ... 234
    71. 부록 ... 240
    72. 부록 1 여성근로자의 분위별 특성 ... 242
    73. 부록 2 최저임금 미만 임금근로자의 업종별 시급분포 ... 257
    74. 부록 3 춘계학술대회 개최자료 ... 259
    75. 부록 4 여성고용정책포럼 자료 ... 260
    76. 부록 5 초등학교 자녀교육지원활동과 여성의 경제활동 조사 설문지 ... 264
    77. Abstract ... 292
    78. 끝페이지 ... 302
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