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일본군‘위안부’ 피해자 문제 해결을 위한 종합연구
A Comprehensive Study to Resolve the Japanese Military ‘Comfort Women’ Issue

  • 과제명

    일본군‘위안부’ 피해자 문제 해결을 위한 종합연구(Ⅰ)

  • 주관연구기관

    한국여성정책연구원

  • 연구책임자

    이인선

  • 참여연구자

    황정임   김동식   강정숙  

  • 보고서유형

    최종보고서

  • 발행국가

    대한민국

  • 언어

    한국어

  • 발행년월

    2015-12

  • 과제시작년도

    2015

  • 주관부처

    여성가족부

  • 사업 관리 기관

    한국여성정책연구원

  • 등록번호

    TRKO201600001090

  • 과제고유번호

    1105010577

  • DB 구축일자

    2016-04-23

  • 초록 


    One of the challenges facing studies on the Japanese military ‘comfort women’ issue is to go beyond the narrow topic of ‘forced m...

    One of the challenges facing studies on the Japanese military ‘comfort women’ issue is to go beyond the narrow topic of ‘forced mobilization’, and to create a realm for in-depth research with a broader sense of coercion which incorporates the compulsory nature of mobilization under a colonial regime as well as the captivity and violence practiced upon the victims of sexual slavery.
    This study focuses on two different topics in order to achieve this goal. The first is a historical research on ways the victims of the ‘comfort women’ system were mobilized, and this research consists of two axes. One is on the major trends and discussions related to the Japanese military‘comfort women’ issue, and the other is an in-depth analysis on the Japanese military ‘comfort women’ system and the mobilization of Joseon women. Existing literature related to the topic, Japanese newspapers, magazines, and trial records, which were created during the period of intensive mobilization of ‘comfort women’ by the Japanese military, were collected in order to understand the major trends and discussions regarding the issue. The victims’ testimony and soldiers’ memoirs were analyzed in order to understand the nature of the mobilization and victimization caused by the ‘comfort women’ system. These consist of testimonies from Joseon women who were victimized by the ‘comfort women’ system and from Chinese victims of sexual violence practiced by the Japanese military, as well as the memoirs of Japanese soldiers themselves.
    The second is an attempt to verify the results caused by the broader sense of coercion, which includes forced mobilization, detainment, and continued sexual violence. Psychosocial aftereffects experienced by the victims of the ‘comfort women’ system in Korea were collected and analyzed in depth in order to investigate the effects of various forms of coercion. Victims of the Japanese military ‘comfort women’ system may have not only experienced severe psychosocial aftereffects caused by forced mobilization, detainment, and sexual violence, but also may be still under the influence of the psychological and physical trauma 70 to 80 years after the fact. Analysis and professional diagnosis of the victims’ psychosocial aftereffects are important and meaningful research when studying the issue of ‘comfort women’, as it proves actual physical and psychological effects of the practice of coercion, which used to be found only in primary historical records and victim testimonies. Despite efforts to measure the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experienced by the victims, professional and systematic in-depth studies of the research and diagnosis of psychosocial aftereffects are yet to be conducted. This paper made an attempt to systematically analyze the victims’ psychosocial aftereffects, by re-analyzing the victim testimonies and art therapy records while examining physical and psychological conditions of the live victims.
    Major findings of the historical research are as follows.Firstly, there were only a few trial records of the Japanese Government-General of Joseon related to military ‘comfort women’. The low quantity of these records can be interpreted as the authority’s condoning of the illegal practices, and even participating in the system. This policy was executed by the brokers, Japanese army contractors, and military ‘comfort station’ operators. The members of the industry known as brokerage agencies and recruiting agencies were often connected to traffickers, and commonly deceived women who were trying to get regular jobs into prostitution. There isn’t much literature which proves a precise connection between military ‘comfort women’ and brokerage agencies, but newspaper advertisements and trial records present cases indicating the connection. Cases involving brothel owners moving to battlefields to operate military comfort stations as well as Japanese military contractors and ‘comfort station’ operators were also examined.
    Secondly, a quantitative analysis was conducted on the data collected from testimonies from the 1990s to the present made by 238 Korean ‘comfort women’ who were recognized by the Korean government as victims. The mobilization was concentrated during the period in which the Japanese military ‘comfort women’ system was becoming a regular practice. Despite a law which restricted the mobilization of women under the age of 17, many in reality were still trafficked as young as 12 years old. Multiple parties including soldiers, civilians attached to the military, policemen, as well as Korean and Japanese brokers participated in this. Considering that soldiers, civilians attached to the military, and policemen represented “undeniable governmental authority”, forced mobilization in which governmental authority was involved was very common. The proportion of forced mobilization based on governmental authority including village and town foremen reached 55.7%.
    Thirdly, according to testimonies from Chinese victims, the Chinese‘comfort women’ system was established during the Japanese invasion into China, mostly by mobilizing local women. The analysis suggests four different types of Chinese ‘comfort women’: officially mobilized women through the Japanese military, local women who were forcibly taken by the Japanese military, the women temporarily taken by the Japanese military, and the women who were raped in military bases and forced to accompany the military to various regions throughout their mop-up operations.
    Lastly, analysis of the Japanese soldiers’ memoirs revealed their perspective of the ‘comfort women’ system. ‘Comfort stations’ were operated as a strategy to take care of the soldiers’ sexual demands and to maintain military order, with the Japanese military playing a major role in mobilizing and managing women. The soldiers saw the ‘comfort women’ system as a type of state-regulated prostitution at the time. The analysis of the victims’ testimony and the soldiers’ memoirs suggest that the perceptions of the victims and soldiers regarding ‘comfort women’ and ‘comfort stations’ were significantly different. It also shows that both military and governmental authority actively participated in mobilizing women, and that it was the military’s role to manage the ‘comfort stations’.
    The findings from the analysis on the victims’ psychosocial aftereffects are as follows.
    Firstly, according to the analysis of oral testimony from 10 victims made between the mid to late 1990s and the early to mid 2000s, all of them were suffering from psychosocial aftereffects. Despite the fact that almost half a century had passed since their time as ‘comfort women’, 3 of them were still experiencing PTSD and complex PTSD, and the rest of them were also believed to had experienced PTSD and complex PTSD in the past.
    Secondly, the analysis of 93 pieces of art created by 6 victims in 2009 as part of an art therapy program suggests that they had distorted body image issues and low self-esteem, as well as experiencing depression, resentment, delusional disorder, and attention deficit disorder. The negative effects of the events related to the ‘comfort women’ system were reflected at an unconscious level through non-verbal expressions in their art.
    Finally, the psychiatric examination conducted on the victims living in the House of Sharing showed that the conditions of 5 victims were beyond simple psychiatric symptoms, severe enough to be professionally diagnosed for hwa-byung or major depression. The result of the physical examination on the victims revealed that 7 of them were in conditions requiring medical attention in the near future. It was, however, difficult to confirm that their current physical symptoms were caused by the victimization experienced in the ‘comfort women’ system.


    Ⅵ. 연구결과
    1. 구술증언자료 분석 결과
    ○ 일본군‘위안부’ 피해자의 주된 정신의학적 후유증은 PTSD임. 10명의 개별사례들을 종합하여 진단을 내려 보면 현재 PTSD를 가지고 있는 사람은 10명중 3명(30%)으로 ...

    Ⅵ. 연구결과
    1. 구술증언자료 분석 결과
    ○ 일본군‘위안부’ 피해자의 주된 정신의학적 후유증은 PTSD임. 10명의 개별사례들을 종합하여 진단을 내려 보면 현재 PTSD를 가지고 있는 사람은 10명중 3명(30%)으로 나타남. 종전 직후에는 거의 전원에게서 PTSD가 있었을것으로 추정되나, 세월이 지나면서 증상이 줄어들거나 감퇴되었을 것으로 보임.
    ○ 특히 장기간 반복되는 성폭력이어서 Complex PTSD가 발생할 요건이 충분하다고 보이며, 성폭력 트라우마에 의한 PTSD, 수치심 때문에 사회적기피, 고립, 행복한 인생에 대한 기대 포기 등은 ‘위안부’ 피해 생존자들의 특수한 증후군으로 볼 수 있음.
    2. 미술치료자료 분석 결과
    ○ 사례들 대부분은 과거와 관련된 영역인 왼쪽에 자기상이나 작품의 주제들이 나타나, 과거에 고착된 정서를 가지고 있다는 것을 확인할 수 있음. 또한 작품에서 성별 묘사를 피하거나 사람이나 사물을 다른 요소들과 분리시키는 등 성학대 경험이 있는 아동의 그림 특징과 일치하는 부분들이 확인됨.
    ○ 어린 시절이 주제로 하는 작품들에서는 평화, 자유, 시원함을 대변하는 초록색과 파란색이 빈도가 높게 나타난 반면, ‘위안부’ 시절을 주제로 하는 작품들에서는 편집증, 우울감 등과 관련되어 있는 갈색, 황토색이 표현됨.
    3. 신체・정신검진자료 분석 결과
    ○ 정신검진 결과, 정신검진에서는 정신건강의학적으로 화병이나 우울증을 진단받을 수 있는 수준의 ‘위안부’ 피해자들이 발견되었음.
    ○ 신체검진조사 결과, 일본군‘위안부’ 피해자들의 신체적 건강상태는 향후의학적 관리가 필요한 상태인 것으로 나타남. 한편, 현재의 신체건강상태가 과거의 일본군‘위안부’ 피해경험과 관련된 것인지를 파악하는 데는 일정한 한계가 있었음.


  • 목차(Contents) 

    1. 표지 ... 1
    2. 발간사 ... 6
    3. 연구요약 ... 8
    4. 목차 ... 16
    5. 표목차 ... 20
    6. 그림목차 ... 23
    7. 자료목차 ... 26
    8. Ⅰ. 연구개요 ... 28
    9. 1. 연구의 필요성과 목적 ... 30
    10. 2. 연구내용 및 방법 ....
    1. 표지 ... 1
    2. 발간사 ... 6
    3. 연구요약 ... 8
    4. 목차 ... 16
    5. 표목차 ... 20
    6. 그림목차 ... 23
    7. 자료목차 ... 26
    8. Ⅰ. 연구개요 ... 28
    9. 1. 연구의 필요성과 목적 ... 30
    10. 2. 연구내용 및 방법 ... 32
    11. 가. 연구내용 ... 32
    12. 나. 연구방법 ... 33
    13. 3. 연구의 흐름 및 구성 ... 35
    14. 제1부 ‘위안부’ 피해자 동원양상과 피해 관련 사료연구 ... 36
    15. Ⅱ. 일본군‘위안부’문제 관련 주요 동향과 쟁점 ... 38
    16. 1. 일본군‘위안부’문제를 둘러싼 시기별 주요 활동 동향 ... 40
    17. 2. 군‘위안부’문제에 대한 연구동향 ... 56
    18. 3. ‘위안부’문제를 둘러싼 주요 논쟁 ... 62
    19. Ⅲ. 일본군‘위안부’제와 조선인 여성 동원 ... 82
    20. 1. 일본군‘위안부’제 성립 배경 ... 84
    21. 2. 조선에서의 일본군‘위안부’ 동원 ... 87
    22. Ⅳ. 피해자 증언에 나타난 ‘위안부’ 동원양상과 피해 ... 132
    23. 1. 한국의 일본군‘위안부’ 피해자 증언의 역사성 ... 134
    24. 2. 중국인 ‘위안부’ 피해 및 성폭력 피해 여성의 증언 분석 ... 160
    25. 3. 전 일본군 군인의 관점에서 보는 일본군‘위안부’: 가해자의 논리를 넘어서기 위해서 ... 189
    26. 제2부 피해자의 심리사회적 후유증 연구 ... 214
    27. Ⅴ. 연구개요 및 선행연구 고찰 ... 216
    28. 1. 연구 필요성 및 목적 ... 218
    29. 2. 연구 방법 및 체계 ... 220
    30. 3. 선행연구 고찰 ... 228
    31. Ⅵ. 연구결과 ... 238
    32. 1. 구술증언자료 분석 결과 ... 240
    33. 2. 미술치료자료 분석 결과 ... 411
    34. 3. 신체・정신검진자료 분석 결과 ... 470
    35. Ⅶ. 종합결과 및 논의 ... 526
    36. 1. 주요 연구결과 ... 528
    37. 2. 연구의 의의와 한계, 향후 연구과제 ... 536
    38. 참고문헌 ... 546
    39. 부록 ... 580
    40. 부록 1 ‘위안부’ 강제연행에 관한 신문광고 ... 582
    41. 부록 2 국내 ‘위안부’ 피해자 증언 분석자료 ... 588
    42. 부록 3 일본군 회고록 분석자료(256권) 목록 ... 589
    43. 부록 4 중일전쟁과 일본군의 전개과정 ... 597
    44. Abstract ... 630
    45. 끝페이지 ... 636
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