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1인 가구 증가에 따른 식품시장 영향과 정책과제
Impact of the Growth of Single-person Households on the Food Market and Policy Tasks

  • 과제명

    1인 가구 증가에 따른 식품시장 영향과 정책과제

  • 주관연구기관

    한국농촌경제연구원
    Korea Rural Economic Institute

  • 연구책임자

    이계임

  • 참여연구자

    황윤재   이행신   반현정   임승주   진현정  

  • 보고서유형

    최종보고서

  • 발행국가

    대한민국

  • 언어

    한국어

  • 발행년월

    2015-10

  • 과제시작년도

    2015

  • 주관부처

    국무조정실

  • 사업 관리 기관

    한국농촌경제연구원
    Korea Rural Economic Institute

  • 등록번호

    TRKO201600001479

  • 과제고유번호

    1105010502

  • DB 구축일자

    2016-05-14

  • 초록 


    Study Findings and Implications
    The monthly average food cost of single-person households was found to be 74.4% of the food co...

    Study Findings and Implications
    The monthly average food cost of single-person households was found to be 74.4% of the food cost of multi-person households, but its Engel’s Coefficient was 29.2%, which is slightly higher than that of the multi-person household. For food cost distribution, the unequal distribution was relatively high with the single-person households compared with the other household group. Based on income levels, the single-person households are found to consume less food than the multi-person households up to the middle class. For higher income groups, however, it was found that the single-person households consume more food than their multi-person counterpart except for fishery foods. For the single-person households of 30 years or below, the consumption of fruits, vegetables and processed fruit/vegetable foods was half the level of multi-person households. When the householders are 60 years old or above, the single-person households were found to consume less than half of the livestock products consumed by multi-person households. Frozen instant foods have witnessed significant consumption growth since 2013, and the consumption growth is notable in the single-person households of 30 years or below. The change in food consumption expenditure from 2006 to 2014 was attributable to the population and general structural changes by 28.6%, and for the single-person households, the change was mainly caused by reduced household size. The single-person households displayed high price elasticity across all food sectors including fresh food, processed food and eating out. They tend to spend more on products available in convenient stores or through mail delivery in smaller volume than the other group.
    Regarding breakfast, the single-person households responded twice as high as breakfast skips than the multi-person households. It was found that almost half of the respondents eat their meals irregularly. One third of the single-person households reported their food chewing issue with the low level of satisfaction with their current food consumption and they reported a low level of interest in locally produced foods, regional specialty foods and environment friendly foods. Dietary life instability was twice as high in the single-person households than in the multiple-person households. The instability became even more severe as the respondents get older and have lower incomes. The single-person households were found to consume less nutrition than recommended compared with the multi-person households and the ratio of those taking insufficient nutrition was twice as high in single-person households.
    The growth of the single-person households has led to ① rising demand for small portion/small packaged products (small size) and ② rising demand for ‘prepared’ foods (convenience). The growth of single-person households has the implications for increasing demand for ‘convenient cooking’ (convenience) in the food industry. In the distribution sector, the growth of single-person households has led to ① more frequent use of convenience stores, ② the expansion of online channels including online supermarkets, and ③ the change in the items displayed on shelves in large supermarket stores. In the eating out market (including restaurants and alcohol beverage bars), other type of restaurants including fast food restaurants, snack bars and seaweed rice roll restaurants have recorded relatively large revenue growth.
    The proportion of the single-person households to the total households is expected to grow continuously from 10.4% in 2014 to 13.5% in 2024. In particular, the single-person households of 60 years old or above are forecasted to grow from 33.3% to 42.3% during the same period. The average expenditure per household by 2024 is expected to rise by 27.2% for single-person households and 19.7% for multi-person households using the per household consumption of 2014 as the basis. Considering the food consumption characteristics of single-person households, four policy proposals are made on dietary life and the food industry. The overall food consumption education campaigns targeting single-person households should be made at the regional level as they tend to show unhealthy daily food consumption patterns and there need to be detailed food support programs targeting those subject to insufficient nutrition intake. Promotion on healthy eating habits at work places, arranging cooking classes for single males living alone, and food information distribution through convenience stores which are frequently used by single-person households could be the ways for food consumption information sharing. Likewise, developing and distributing similar education programs through different places is necessary. The elderly living alone aged 70 or above are selected as the most vulnerable group in need of food support. The study suggests placing the policy priorities on the elderly living alone in small districts in the order of Eup/Myeon and Dong. When selecting food items for support, the foods and nutrition intake status of the concerned classes should be considered. In order to improve the solo dining experience of the single-person households, it is necessary to develop and operate group cooking and cafeteria dinning programs. As a policy proposal for the food industry, it is needed to focus on developing high-quality ready-made foods and controlling the quality of delivered foods in reflection of the rising demand for convenient home cooking and food delivery. To meet the demand from expanding senior population, providing the types of the foods preferred by the elderly is also needed.


    시사점 및 결론
    ○ 1인 가구의 식생활 특성을 감안하여 식생활정책과 식품산업정책의 4가지 정책과제를 제안하였다.
    ○ 식생활정책으로 식생활이 불건전한 1인 가구 전반을 대상으로 지역단위에서의 식생활 교육 활성화가 필요하며,...

    시사점 및 결론
    ○ 1인 가구의 식생활 특성을 감안하여 식생활정책과 식품산업정책의 4가지 정책과제를 제안하였다.
    ○ 식생활정책으로 식생활이 불건전한 1인 가구 전반을 대상으로 지역단위에서의 식생활 교육 활성화가 필요하며, 영양섭취 부족층을 대상으로 구체적인 식품지원프로그램을 활성화할 필요가 있다. 직장 내 식생활교육 강화, 독신 남성 대상 요리교실 개최, 1인 가구 이용비중이 높은 편의점 등을 통해 식생활 정보를 제공하는 등 다양한 장소를 대상으로 한 프로그램의 개발과 보급 등이 필요하다.
    ○ 식품지원이 가장 시급하게 필요한 1인 가구를 70대 이상 독거노인으로 선정하였으며, 읍·면지역 독거노인, 동지역 독거노인의 순으로 정책대상 우선순위를 두었다. 지원대상 식품류는 해당 계층의 식품 및 영양소섭취 현황을 고려하고, 섭취 특성 등을 고려하여 식생활 지원이 이루어져야 한다. 혼자 식사하는 여건을 개선하기 위해 공동취사·급식 프로그램을 개발하여 운용할 필요가 있다.
    ○ 식품산업정책으로는 1인 가구의 가정간편식품과 배달식품 수요 증가를 반영한 가정간편식품·배달식품의 품질 관리 강화와 높은 고령자 비중을 반영한 고령친화식품 활성화를 추진할 필요가 있다.


  • 목차(Contents) 

    1. 표 지 ... 1
    2. 머 리 말 ... 3
    3. 요 약 ... 5
    4. ABSTRACT ... 12
    5. 목차 ... 17
    6. 표목차 ... 19
    7. 그림목차 ... 23
    8. 제1장 서 론 ... 29
    9. 1. 연구의 필요성과 목적 ... 29
    10. 2. 선행연구...
    1. 표 지 ... 1
    2. 머 리 말 ... 3
    3. 요 약 ... 5
    4. ABSTRACT ... 12
    5. 목차 ... 17
    6. 표목차 ... 19
    7. 그림목차 ... 23
    8. 제1장 서 론 ... 29
    9. 1. 연구의 필요성과 목적 ... 29
    10. 2. 선행연구 검토 ... 30
    11. 3. 연구 내용 ... 40
    12. 4. 연구범위와 방법 ... 41
    13. 제2장 1인 가구 구성과 변화 추세 ... 49
    14. 1. 1인 가구 증가 배경 ... 49
    15. 2. 1인 가구 추세 ... 52
    16. 3. 1인 가구의 경제‧인구‧사회학적 구성 변화 ... 54
    17. 4. 1인 가구 관련 정책 동향 ... 57
    18. 제3장 1인 가구의 식품 소비 분석 ... 61
    19. 1. 소득 및 소비 추세 ... 61
    20. 2. 식료품비 추세 ... 65
    21. 3. 식품류 및 주요 품목 소비 비교 ... 66
    22. 4. 1인 가구 증가의 식품소비지출 영향 분석 ... 73
    23. 5. 식품소비 탄력성 비교 ... 77
    24. 제4장 1인 가구의 식품구입행태 ... 79
    25. 1. 전반적인 구입행태 ... 79
    26. 2. 품목별 구매행태 ... 83
    27. 3. 외식 및 배달/테이크아웃 ... 94
    28. 제5장 1인 가구의 식생활행태 및 영양섭취수준 분석 ... 103
    29. 1. 식생활행태 ... 103
    30. 2. 식생활 불안정성(미보장성) ... 110
    31. 3. 영양 섭취 분석 ... 113
    32. 제6장 1인 가구의 식품산업 영향 분석 ... 117
    33. 1. 식품제조업 변화 분석 ... 117
    34. 2. 유통시장 변화 분석 ... 130
    35. 3. 외식시장 변화 분석 ... 137
    36. 제7장 외국의 1인 가구 대응 식품시장 현황과 시사점 ... 141
    37. 1. 일본 ... 141
    38. 2. 미국 ... 157
    39. 3. 유럽: 독일 중심 ... 162
    40. 4. 시사점 ... 169
    41. 제8장 1인 가구 식품소비 전망과 정책과제 ... 171
    42. 1. 1인 가구의 식품소비 전망 ... 171
    43. 2. 식품산업 대응 전망 ... 180
    44. 3. 정책과제 ... 184
    45. 제9장 요약 및 결론 ... 199
    46. 1. 연구결과의 요약 ... 199
    47. 2. 결론 및 정책 시사점 ... 207
    48. 부록 1 품목별 지출액 추이 ... 211
    49. 부록 2 식품비 지출 기준 1인 가구의 유형화 분류 분석 ... 223
    50. 부록 3 3개 부문 수요함수 추정 결과 ... 231
    51. 참고 문헌 ... 233
    52. 끝페이지 ... 241
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